The Parsa Wildlife Reserve was established in 1984, and covers an area of 499 sq. kilometers. It is located in the Terai region of Central Nepal. The reserve’s wildlife includes wild elephant, tiger, sloth bear, hog deer and hyena. Birds include giant hornbill, peafowl, red jungle fowl and woodpecker. Snakes of different varieties exist here, including king cobra, krait, rat snake and Python.
The park has a sub-tropical climate, and is forested with Sal trees. Other vegetation includes sissoo, silk cotton tree and khair. Tall sabai grass, also known as elephant grass, also abound here.
The soil is primarily composed of gravel and conglomerates, making it susceptible to erosion. The hills present a very rugged face with numerous gullies and dry streambeds. As the foothills are very porous, water flows underground and surfaces at a distance of about 15 km. from the hills base. The Churia hill range from 750m to 950m running east to west.
Flora & Fauna
The forests are mainly composed of tropical and subtropical species. Sal forests compose about 90 percent of the reserve’s vegetation. Along the banks of the rivers, riverine forests are found containing species like Khair and Silk cotton tree. In the north-eastern part of the reserve, at higher altitudes, Sal and Pine forests are occurring. On the southern slope of the Siwalik hills, the forests are dominated by pine. Sabai grass is commercially important species, grows well on the southern face of the Churia hills.
The reserve supports good populations of various endangered species include wild Asian elephant, Royal Bengal tiger, Sloth bear, and Leopard. Blue bull, Sambar, Chital, Hog deer, Barding deer, Langur, Rhesus macaques, striped hyena, Jungle cat, and Palm civet are also found in the reserve.
The reserve also provides habitat for more than 500 species of birds. For example White breasted kingfisher, Paradise flycatcher, Large racquet-tailed drongo, Golden backed woodpecker, etc are some of the common sights. Giant hornbill, one of the endangered bird species is found in some forest patches. The reserve is also famous for reptiles and different kinds of snakes include common Cobra, Common and banded Karit, Python and King cobra.
Winter (October-December) provide pleasant temperatures with clear skies. Nighttime temperatures can drop to 0°C. During spring (January-March) temperatures rise and water becomes scarce. During summer (April-June) the days become hot and humid with temperatures rising up to -40°C. Monsoon (July-September) brings cooling rains.
Main Seasons to Visit Parsa wildlife Reserve:
The Parsa Wildlife Reserve has a subtropical monsoon climate with relatively high humidity. The main seasons are winter (October-December), spring (January-March), summer (April-June) and monsoon (July-September). Summer days are characteristically hot with average temperatures ranging form 30o-35o C.
There is a small guesthouse with four rooms at the headquarters. There is also a teahouse that can provide tea, snacks, and Nepali food. Hetauda and Birgunj are about an hour’s bus. Make sure to bring a first-aid kit containing medicines for intestinal problems.
Near the headquarters there is a machan (view tower) that provides excellent opportunities to catch glimpses of many birds, deer and leopard. Wild elephants could be also sighted form the machans. Kailas Bhata is atop a hill, and is of religious importance. It house two small temples (Dugdeswor Mahadev) paying homage to the Hindu gods of Shiva and Parbati. Also, one can look over the lush forests of the Terai from here. An elephant camp is located near the Amlekhgunj in Bara district. Jungle rides can be arranged from the reserve headquarters, which is the best way to get a close view of the wildlife.
How to Reach Parsa Wildlife Reserve
The parsa wildlife reserve is can be reached by bus via the Kathmandu. Birgunj highway or the Mahendra Rajmarg highway. The reserve headquarters is an 8 hour drive from Kathmandu. Simara airport is 7 km away from the reserve headquarters. It take only 15 minutes of reach Simara form Kathmandu by plane.